Should all human rights be universal? Are some cultures “morally handicapped” (Little, 1993:85)?

This essay must follow a clear and consise structure, observing the difference between Relativists- human rights are social constructed and are shaped by cultural and environmental contexts
Universalists- human rights have always existed, and apply to all people regardless of culture, race, sex, or religion
Levi-strauss- denial of the third world devide, the world is becoming too small for humanity, bur boundaries that show destinctions between not only our identities but also the comparative project to wich structuralism occurs.
I wish for, in the assignment for the universalist argument to appear stronger
and for the use of Sharia law (in islamic states) to be included to show how extreme these practices are – the hanging of homosexuals, stoning
Human rights act-1998 (unrealised in muslim countries – inproper investigation into criminal claims) the right to life- the universal declaration of human rights
Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) echoes the U.S. Constitution in proclaiming that “no one shall be subject to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment,”
Rights of future generations (e.g. environmental protection)
Sexual orientation and gender identity
Soft rights- Trade, Water, Reproductive rights, Information and communication technologies- these are denied allover (should be universal) hacking, invasion of privacy
Hard Rights- Right to life, Freedom from torture, Freedom from slavery, Right to a fair trial, Freedom of speech, Freedom of thought (right to abort a child)

conscience and religion
mostly hard rights are neglected- americas death row, hanging in islam
These rights are the most extreme and should be ebolished
Amnesty international fight for a noble cause- to extrodite the death penalty
Second optional protocol to the international convent on civil and polotical rights- Is adopted and is in force
Stratagies for peace building- Encouraging education for peace, human rights and democracy, fighting descrimination, supporting consolidation and democratic processes, encouraging cultural pluralism and dialogue between cultures, contributing to conflict peace building
World commision on culture development (WCCD) responsible for the report that had 13 full members with academic, artistic and political backgrounds. From mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Usa, Greece, Norway etc.

Conclude- Most states are in denial that theyre systems are wrong, states of denial,
they must change in order to achieve a representative and fair system

rec books-
Goodale, M. (ed.) (2009). Human Rights: An Anthropological Reader. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.
Tonry, M. (2008). Crime and Human Rights. Criminology, 46(1), 1-34.
Downes. D Et. Al (ed) (2007) Crime, Social Control and Human Rights- From Moral Panics to States of Denial, Willian Publishing, Cullompton
Fenwick. H (2002) Civil Liberties and Human Rights 3rd ed, Cavendish Publishing, London
Smith. R (2014)Textbook on International Human Rights 6th ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford