Search for life in the universe

The questions are attached. You can use any sources, but not Wikipedia. The course text book is “Life in the Universe” by Bennet and Shostak, second or third edition. Please answer the questions and show work where it’s needed. If you’re answering question 1, write question 1 and then the answer. Some questions have a, b, c parts as well, so please separate them as well. It’s a simple format, not essay, please. The questions require critical thinking as well as knowledge, so please clearly show your thought process in answering questions. Thank you! (Page numbers may vary from what I request. It’s just an estimation)