Please answer only 1 of the following 2 points:

  1. Describe the various geo-strategic, military and religious policies used by the European Great Powers (Austria, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy) to annex key Turkish provinces and ultimately partition and destroy the declining Ottoman-Turkish Empire (1700s-1919).
  2. Describe the Ottoman-Turkish Empire’s repression policies against secessionist minorities (Greek- Balkan Christians, Armenian Christians, Assyrian Christians) and non-Turkish subject Muslim populations (Arabs and Kurds) in the 1820s-1918.

The essay should be 500+ words, single-spaced in a 12-point font, and conform in style to include parenthetical citations and footnoted references.

The essays should demonstrate understanding and thoughtful reflection on a topic that speaks to the mission of this course. That is, it should reflect your ability to place the topic into the context of daily life.

Essays will be graded on the basis of content, clarity and overall quality of work. These essays are the main component of this course.